oner: (альтернативная реальность)
Normally, inversion in English occurs in questions. In other cases the use of inversion is optional and one has to be careful about overusing it, in which case inversion may look and sound too dramatic and strange. Obviously, the purpose of inverting subjects and verbs is to put the emphasis on what we cosider the most important part of the sentence, or utterance, at a particular time. Inversion is introduced either after certain lead words (never, nor) or some sentence patterns (no sooner ... than). It is also important to stress that there are two types, or patterns, of inversion, which are discussed separately to be less confusing for you.

Examples of lead words:
negative adverbials: never (before), on no account, not only, no sooner, in no way, in/under no circumstances, on no account, on no occasion, on no condition, only then
These words follow the first pattern of inversion, which will be demonstrated below by a couple of examples:


wyrażenie + operator/czasownik + podmiot + czasownik + reszta zdania

For example (Polish translation provided in italics. Subject-verb intversion is difficult to translate into Polish so I just used just loose, 'more-or-less' translations):

Never before + have + I + been + so happy in my life. Nigdy wcześniej w życiu nie byłam tak szczęśliwa.

On no account + can + my daughter + go + to this room. Pod żadnym pozorem moja córka nie może wejść do tego pokoju.

Not only + are + computers useful, but also entertaining. Nie tylko komputery się przydają, ale też bawią.

No sooner had I arrived than I noticed that my watch had been stolen. Ledwie co wróciłem, kiedy zauważyłem, że ktoś ukradł mój zegarek.

In no way can you help me. W żaden sposób nie możesz mi pomóc.

In/under no circumstances are you allowed to use my computer. W żadnym wypadku nie możesz skorzystać z mojego komputera.

On no occasion/on no condition can you follow me. Pod żadnym pozorem nie idź za mną.

Only then did I understand everything. Dopiero wtedy wszystko zrozumiałam.

restrictive adverbs/adverbials: scarcely, hardly, rarely, seldom, barely, only in this way, little, hardly ever
Scarcely/Hardly had the cat caught the mouse when the dog started chasing it. Ledwie co kot złapał mysz, gdy zaczął gonić go pies.

Rarely/sedlom does he visit us. Rzadko (on) nas odwiedza.

Only in this way will she be able to solve this problem. Tylko w ten sposób zdoła ona rozwiązać ten problem.

Little do we know about the accident. O wypadku wiemy mało.

after: only after, only by, only if, only when, not since, not till/until we use the other type of inversion, which is simply inverting the main clause in a sentence, not what follows the lead phrase. Compare:

Only when you see him, will you realize how much he has suffered.

The green fragment was inverted, instead of what is placed directly after "only when". We must be careful with these phrases, especially with not till/until, or not since. Other examples:

Not since I was a child have I had such a wonderful holiday. Od dzieciństwa nie miałem tak udanych wakacji.

Not until the calculator was constructed, did people have to use abaci. Dopóty nie skonstruowano kalkulatora, ludzie używali liczydeł.

Only by regular training can you keep fit. Tylko porzez regularny trening możesz utrzymać formę.

Only after you read about inversion, will you see how difficult this topic is. Dopiero jak poczytasz o inwersji, zorientujesz się jak trudny to temat.

Other situations in which inversion occurs:

adverbs indicating position of movement like: here, up, down etc., or adverbials of place:
Here comes the hero!! A oto bohater, oto pojawia się bohater etc.

Into the room came my sister with good news. Do pokoju wpadła siostra z dobrymi wieściami.

Upstairs he went. Na górę poszedł.

On the hill stood the castle. Na wzgórzu stał zamek.

after so and such to express result:
So nice was the party that we decided to have it again! Tak fajna była impreza, że aż zechcieliśmy przeżyć ją jeszcze raz.

Such was the rain that I couldn`t drive my car. Tak padało, że aż nie mogłem prowadzić samochodu.

After so in short answers like: So do I (Me too), and, analogically, Neither do I.

in conditional clauses, with the aim of eliminating "if":
If you should have any problem, call me at once. = Should you have any problem, call me at once

If I were you, I would choose the red one. = Were I you, I would choose...

If I had been more attentive, I wouldn`t have had the accident. Had I been more attentive...

in the following type of constructions with past participles:
past participle + verb + subject + the rest of the sentence

Analyzed were phenomena such as stylistic inversion. Analizowano zjawiska takie jak inwersja stylistyczna.

Solved first will be problems concerning the unemployed. Najpierw rozwiązane będą problemy bezrobotnych.

after as in the following construction:
I read books as do many young people. Czytam książki jak wielu młodych ludzi.

The dinner was great, as was the party.

Вспомогательный глагол do (does, did) в утвердительном предложении
усиливает роль сказуемого.

При переводе усилительный эффект можно передавать при помощи слов
«действительно», «все-таки», «несомненно». Необходимо заметить, что
смысловой глагол употребляется в инфинитиве.

•Не does love you!
Он все-таки любит тебя!

Инверсия, т. е. обратный порядок слов, когда подлежащее и сказуемое
меняются местами.

•Right you are!
Конечно, вы правы!

Инверсия встречается в условных предложениях III типа.

•Had he come here, we should not have known what to do. (I he had come, we should not have known what to do.)
Приди он сюда, мы не знали бы что делать.

•Could I help you, I'd do this for you. (If I could help you ... ).
Если бы я мог помочь тебе, я бы сделал это для тебя.

•Were he to realize the danger, he was in, he would not proceed with this plan. (If he realized...)
Если бы он понимал ту опасность, в которой он находится, он бы не
продолжал этот план.

Инверсия также возможна в простых предложениях после отрицательных
наречий never, nowhere, not since, not until, never again, rarely.

•Never did he tell the truth!
Никогда он не говорил правду!

•Nowhere will you come across a more hospitable nation.
Нигде вы не найдете более гостеприимную нацию.

•Rarely do you meet a girl of such beauty.
Редко встретишь девушку такой красоты.

Инверсия может иметь место в предложениях после hardly... when, no
sooner... than, little.
•Hardly had the two strangers arrived when the majority of the guests departed.
He успели два незнакомца приехать, как большинство гостей уехало.

•Little did anyone realize the seriousness of the situation.
Мало кто понимал серьезность ситуации.

•No sooner had we sat down to dinner than there came an explosion from the kitchen.
Как только (едва) мы сели за стол, как на кухне раздался взрыв.

Инверсия также употребляется после словосочетаний only и no.

•Only when I myself became a parent did I realize the value of my parents'advice.
Только когда я сам стал родителем, я понял ценность совета моих

•Only then did she tell the truth.
Только тогда она сказала правду.

•At no time did I intend to deceive you.
Никогда я не намеревался тебя обманывать.

Эмфатическая конструкция, выделяющая обстоятельство времени,
вводится сочетанием not until (it is not until.. that). При переводе употребляются слова только, только после, до.

•It was not until 9 o'clock that he returned.
Только в 9 часов он вернулся.

•It was not until they arrived that we learned the truth.
Только после того как они приехали, мы узнали правду.
oner: (альтернативная реальность)
A cleft sentence is a complex sentence (one having a main clause and a dependent clause) that has a meaning that could be expressed by a simple sentence. Clefts typically put a particular constituent into focus. This focusing is often accompanied by a special intonation.

In English, a cleft sentence can be constructed as follows:

it + conjugated form of to be + X + subordinate clause
where it is a cleft pronoun and X is usually a noun phrase (although it can also be a prepositional phrase, and in some cases an adjectival or adverbial phrase).

Noun: It's money that I love.
Prepositional phrase: It was on foot that he went there.
Adverbial phrase: It was greedily and speedily that Homer Simpson drank his beer.
Non-finite clause: It is to address a far-reaching problem that Oxfam is launching this campaign.
Gerund: It could be going home early or slacking off work that the boss reacted to.
Adverbial clause: It was because she was so lonely all the time that she decided to move out.

English is very rich in cleft constructions. Below are examples of other types of clefts found in English, though the list is not exhaustive (see Lambrecht 2001 for a comprehensive survey, Collins 1991 for an in-depth analysis of it-clefts and wh-clefts in English, and Calude 2009 for an investigation of clefts in spoken English).

It-cleft: It is Jaime for whom we are looking.
Wh-cleft/Pseudo-cleft: What he wanted to buy was a Fiat.
Reversed wh-cleft/Inverted pseudo-cleft: A Fiat is what he wanted to buy.
All-cleft: All he wanted to buy was a Fiat.
Inferential cleft: It is not that he loves her. It's just that he has a way with her that is different.
There-cleft: And then there's a new house he wanted to build.
If-because cleft: If he wants to be an actor it's because he wants to be famous.

И на закуску

Pseudo-cleft sentences (also called wh-clefts) are similar in function to cleft sentences, but they are formed with the pronoun what (= the thing(s) that/which). The emphasis in a pseudo-cleft sentence is on the phrase after the what-clause + be:

What you need is a good sleep.

If we want to refer to a person, we say The person/people who/that:

The people who/that I met were members of the delegation.

If we want to emphasise an action, the verb after be usually takes the form that corresponds to the form used in the what-clause:

What you should do is write a letter to the manager.
What they were doing was arguing about which train to take.

In the following examples, the verb after be takes the form that the verb in the what-clause is normally followed by:

What I want is to sleep.
What he can't stand is getting up early.

In the past simple and present perfect, we can use the following patterns:

What I did in the end was (to) go home.
What I have done is (to) write a letter to the editor.


I will start this article with describing a kind of relative clause that is called 'cleft sentence'. "Cleft" means in this sense "divided" because in the transformations below you will find some division between subject and verb seen in the cleft sentence. These transformations are really useful in writing (and of course in speaking too :)) because they allow us to transfom a sentence in a way that can be very convenient for us when we want to emphasize some parts of the sentence.

The following examples are considered to be more formal, however we can also hear them in less formal dialogues as well, so here the distinction between formal and informal English might not necessarily be valid.

(In italics I put what I initially want to be emphasized, in bold - the part of the sentence that is emphasized in a cleft sentence)

Harry turned out to be a thief.

Harry is the person who turned out to be a thief. (To) Harry jest osobą, która okazała się być złodziejem.

The person who turned out to be a thief was Harry. Osobą, która okazała się być złodziejem jest Harry.

These are the ways of placing the emphasis on subject. The same can be done in the case of object:

Harry turned out to be a thief.

A thief was what Harry turned out to be. Złodziej był tym kimś, kim okazał się Harry.

What Harry turned out to be was a thief. Kim okazał się być Harry był (zwykły) złodziej.

Analogically, the same refers to verb:

Harry stole the car.

What Harry did was (to) steal the car. To co zrobił Harry to kradzież samochodu.

What is also possible is to put extra emphasis on the whole sentence by using a cleft structure with 'what' and some verb. It is illustrated in the examples below:

The car was stolen.

What happened was (that) the car was stolen. To co się stało to kradzież samochodu.

She said she would give up smoking.

What she said was (that) she would give up smoking. (To) co powiedziała,to to, że rzuci palenie.

We can also find cleft constructions which make use of preparatory it. Again, we can emphasize whichever part of the sentence, depending on the need or purpose of the author.

My sister sent a postcard to her teacher yesterday.

It was my sister that sent a postcard to her teacher yesterday. To moja siostra wysłała kartkę swojemu nauczycielowi.

It was a postcard that my sister sent to her teacher yesterday. Pocztówka była tym, co moja siostra wysłała swojemu nauczycielowi.

It was my sister`s teacher that she sent a postcard to yesterday. To do swojego nauczyciela moja siostra wysłała kartkę.

It was yesterday that my sister sent a postcard to her teacher. To wczoraj moja siostra wysłała swojemu nauczycielowi kartkę.

When we want to emphasize a pronoun as subject, we have two ways out:

It is I who am responsible for the accident. (FORMAL)

It is me that is/who is responsible for the accident. (INFORMAL) To ja jestem odpowiedzialny za wypadek.

It is you who are wrong. (FORMAL)

It is you that is wrong. (INFORMAL)

It is also possible to use cleft sentences when we want to emphasize a place, time or reason. Let`s look at these sentences:

John sleeps in the attic.

The attic is where John sleeps.

The attic is the place where John sleeps.

The place where John sleeps is the attic.

John went to London on Tuesday.

Tuesday was the day when/that John went to London.

John went to London to see Jane.

To see Jane was the reason why John went to London.

The reason why John went to London was to see Jane.

Let`s remember that sentences like these:

All you need is love.
All (that) I did was (to) touch the button and the car exploded.
The only thing I remember is a big black spider.
My FCE exam is something (that) I will never forget.
This is what he did to save the house.
are also examples of clefting. What clauses are sometimes referred to as 'pseudo-cleft' sentences, but for the time being we do not need to know why etc. It`s just worth remembering and that`s it:)

As regards emphatic structures, let`s also remember about two more things. The first thing is the use of the auxiliary 'do' to provide an emphatic effect:

I do promise to help you. Naprawdę obiecuję pomóc.

It does seem to be true. To naprawdę wydaje się prawdziwe.

Another thing is the use of reflexive pronouns as emphatic pronouns:

I want to repair this radio myself (=on my own). Chcę sam naprawić to radio.

Kate herself opened the window. Kasia sama otworzyla okno.
oner: (альтернативная реальность)
...и холодно и хочется халвы и девушку в малиновом берете и в темноте бредут к тебе волхвы - Ремантадин, Феназепам и третий и в городе гуляют братья Грипп и прочее подобное иродство творится и зелёная горит во лбу звезда вьетнамская и жжётся...


Тощий, словно карандаш,
и такой же деревянный...
Знаю - ты меня предашь,
знаю... Поздно или рано.
Что ты мне ни говори,
ни доказывай упорно...
Стержень у тебя внутри -
oner: (альтернативная реальность)
Сегодня очередное прозрение. Опять я узнаю что-то абсолютно для меня новое о человеческом организме.

И это при том, что в детстве моими настольными книгами были подборки журналов "Здоровье". К восьми-девяти годам я знала, как протекает беременность помесячно (с иллюстрациями), знала о хромосомах, внутриутробном развитии ребенка, причинах болезни Дауна и гемофилии (на уровне хромосом), о том, как именно влияет алкоголь и курение на организм (с иллюстрациями), о наркотиках и ломке, а также выучила слова "аборт", "гомосексуалист" (не понимая их значений) и "СПИД" (некая страшная болезнь, причем что такое "передается половым путем", я тоже представляла очень своеобразно: т.е. что заражение происходит, если сесть на унитаз после того, как на нем посидит больной).

Тем не менее, когда в 12 лет проснулись гормоны и начали мощную атаку на мозги, я к этому оказалась совершенно не готова. Как раз в это время отношения с родителями испортились напрочь и так и не восстановились; причем я еще считала, что у всех так и что именно так и надо, и всячески культивировала конфликты и непонимание вместо попыток как-то объясниться (понятно, что попытки были бы не очень удачными, но ведь их-то вообще не было).

В 22 года, после первого визита "по-взрослому", т.е. для себя, а не для школы / института к гинекологу, я пришла в ужас от того, как мало я о себе знаю, и пошла в интернет (эх, молодость :) и интернет по карточкам, и первый ноутбук, наш незадачливый Асус). Узнала очень много нового, дааа :)

И вот, сегодня. Очередная новость для меня - молочные зубы. До сегодня я наивно считала, что у молочных зубов нет корней, а выпадают они потому, что постоянные зубы их выталкивают снизу, когда начинают расти. (И я же помню, помню свои молочные выпавшие зубы - не было у них и намеков на корни никаких!) А вот нет же ж!! Есть у молочных зубов и корни, и нервы, а выпадают они потому, что (вот здесь шок!) корни рассасываются! Корни молочных зубов формируются до 3 лет, а потом начинают рассасываться. И все, корни резцов рассасываются к 6-8 годам, а клыков и моляров к 12-13. Жуть :)

А вот интересно, об этом знаем только я и дантисты, или еще кто-то знающий есть? :):)
oner: (альтернативная реальность)
Оригинал взят у [ profile] croissante в Становясь матерью, самка умнеет.
"Материнский мозг" Крейг Кинсли и Келли Ламберт
статья из журнала "В мире науки" ("Scientific American") №4, 2006
Описывается влияние беременности, родов и лактации на поведение самок крыс и рождение потомства у самцов других животных, которые принимают участие в его воспитании. - здесь полтора абзаца.
Далее )
oner: (альтернативная реальность)
просто книга как вместилище текста - содержание - уже неинтересна, теперь надо поизгаляться над формой (хотя про 451 по Фаренгейту и биографии-скульптуры - это круто)

а вот это просто смешное: